“HERD GENOCIDE V” - “mRNA” - “THE ASYMPTOMATIC SUPER SPREADER VACCINE!” LESS THAN 80% VACCINATED MASKS & DISTANCING MANDATORY FOREVER! ADD SHORT LIFE OF VACCINE, PLUS ANIMAL AND EMERGING MARKET NEW STRAINS = THE GLOBAL DEPOPULATION AGENDA!
Denmark Announces Christmas Lockdown As Coronavirus Cases Spike
David Nikel Senior Contributor
Dec 16, 2020, 01:12pm EST|2,281 views
Denmark’s prime minister Mette Frederiksen has announced a nationwide Christmas lockdown to try and deal with record rates of coronavirus cases. Speaking on a day that the country set a new daily record for positive tests, Frediksen called the situation “very serious.”
The State Serum Institute (SSI) announced on December 16 that 3,692 positive tests for Covid-19 were registered in the previous 24 hours. The number of hospitalizations increased by 54 to a new high of 493, putting almost half of Denmark’s Covid-19 hospital beds into use. 961 people have died so far.
The country will be in “full lockdown” from December 25 and will stay in place until January 3. All shops aside from supermarkets and pharmacies will close during the lockdown period.
“We have now reached risk level 4 across the country, which is the second highest level. That means the authorities estimate that infection is widespread nationwide,” said Frederiksen.
Other measures will be introduced sooner. Shopping malls and large department stores will be closed from Thursday, while all schools for younger children will be closed from December 21. Older children are already subject to a remote learning requirement.
Businesses involving close contact such as leisure facilities, hairdressers and physiotherapists must also close from December 21.
Christmas Eve gatherings still permitted
As in other Scandinavian countries, Danes typically celebrate Christmas with a main meal on December 24. Frederiksen confirmed the guidance for Christmas Eve will not be changed.
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This means Danes can gather in private homes in groups of no more than ten, as long as social distancing can be implemented. However, Frederiksen encouraged Danes to keep their gatherings as small as possible.
She also confirmed that there are no plans to introduce travel restrictions within Denmark.
New Year and beyond
Specific recommendations for New Year’s Eve are to be announced at the beginning of next week. However, as the day falls within the newly-announced lockdown period, no loosening of restrictions is expected.
. . THE US HAS NEARLY 4 TIMES THE DEATHS PER MILLION PEOPLE AS DENMARK!
. . DENMARK HAS NEARLY 4 TIMES THE NUMBER OF TESTS PER 1,000 PEOPLE AS US!
. . EVIL BRAINDEAD AND BRAINLESS - BITCHES AND BASTARDS OF THE EVIL RICH!
. . SATAN’S EMPIRE OF PURE EVIL GREED! . . CAN YOU SEE ANY RELATIONSHIP THAT . .
. . MAY GUIDE US AS TO WHAT WE MIGHT DO TO REDUCE THE DEATHS PER MILLION?
. . I THINK IT HAS TO DO WITH TESTING? . . AND . . CONTACT TRACING! . .
. . NOT TO MENTION . . USING MASKS RELIGIOUSLY . . AND . . SOCIAL DISTANCING!
. . GOD DAMN LIBERALS! . “I TRACED MY CONTACTS . AND NOW . I CAN’T SEE ANYTHING!”
. . SEE WHAT HAPPENS WHEN YOU SELL YOUR SOUL TO . . “MONEY IN GOD’S NAME!”
. . CHRIST SAID . . EITHER CHOOSE . . “MONEY” . . OR . . “GOD!” . . AND THE US . .
. . SATANIC ANTICHRISTIANS SAID! . YES . “MONEY IS GOD!” . “MONEY IN GOD’S NAME!”
. . “ALL FOR - THE RUTHLESS RICH!” . . “RAPE - THE REST - AND - GOOD - RUTHLESSLY!”
. . “THE TOP SLAVE BASED FASCIST PLUTOCRACY” . . EVER! . . .
. . “SOCIALISM - FOR - THE RICH!” . . “SLAVERY - FOR - THE REST!”
. . PREPARE YOUR SOULS! . . PREPARE YOURSELVES! . . LIVE CHRIST’S COMMANDMENTS!
. . TO EVERYONE EVERYWHERE! . . LIVE . . “FATHER’S WILL BE DONE!” . . IN YOUR LIFE!
. . SUPPORT . . “THE NORDIC MODEL NOW!” . . THE ONLY LIVING GOD’S COMMANDMENT!
. . “AS IT IS IN HEAVEN!” . . SUSTAINABLE HUMANE & EGALITARIAN! . . . .
. . “SO SHOULD IT BE ON EARTH!” . . “THE SHE MATRIARCAL NORDIC MODEL!”
. . “TAKE CARE OF - THOSE IN NEED!” . . OR . . “FRY BABY FRY” WHEN YOU “DIE BABY DIE!”
. . GIFT EVERYTHING OVER $5 MILLION/FAMILY . . OVER . . FIVE YEARS!
. . WORTH $1 TO $5 MILLION - ABOVE HOUSE VALUE - GIFT 10% PER YEAR OF INCOME!
. . “THE REST” - WORTH UNDER $1 MILLION - ABOVE HOUSE - GIFT WHAT YOU CAN!
. . “TO THOSE IN NEED!” . LIVING IN PANDEMIC AND ABRUPT CLIMATE CHANGE HELL!
. . “BECOME - ONE - WITH - THE ONE!” . . “THE LOGICAL GOD OF LOVE!” . . JESUS CHRIST!
. . “THE SPIRIT OF GOD’S LOVE!” . . SARAYU! . . GOD WITHIN OUR SOULS! . . AND WITH . .
. . “MAMMA GOD!” . THE LOGICAL GOD OF LOVE! . “PURE LOVE PURE LOGIC GOD OF ALL!”
US hits grim new daily record with 3,656 coronavirus deaths
BY JUSTINE COLEMAN - 12/17/20 07:31 AM EST
The U.S. hit a grim new daily record with 3,656 COVID-19 deaths and 276,403 new cases on Wednesday, according to real-time data from Johns Hopkins University.
Wednesday marked the fourth day since the pandemic began that the U.S. surpassed 3,000 COVID-19 deaths in a day. It also was the 44th consecutive day that the U.S. confirmed more than 100,000 new cases in a day.
The last records for single-day cases and deaths were reached on Dec. 11, about two weeks after Thanksgiving, when 231,775 cases were recorded and 3,300 deaths, according to a report from ABC News.
As of Thursday morning, Johns Hopkins University data shows the U.S. has documented almost 17 million cases and 307,512 fatalities since the beginning of the pandemic.
Current COVID-19-related hospitalizations have reached a record 113,090, including 21,936 patients in the intensive care unit and 7,778 on ventilators, according to The COVID Tracking Project.
The U.S.’s case numbers surpassed 100,000 per day for the first time on the day after Election Day and then reached 200,000 per day for the first time on Nov. 27 — the day after Thanksgiving.
Health experts say that Thanksgiving gatherings contributed to the recent upticks in cases, hospitalizations and deaths, a warning as other holidays approach.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended against travel or gathering with people outside one’s household for Thanksgiving, yet millions of people traveled in the days before and after the holiday.
Top infectious diseases expert Anthony Fauci has repeatedly cautioned that Christmas and other holiday gatherings could cause greater spikes in cases, hospitalizations and fatalities.
The grim numbers also come amid a glimmer of hope as vaccinations started in the U.S. this week for vulnerable populations and health care workers.
WHEN I HEARD - RFK, JR - SAY - THE BIG PROBLEM WITH - mRNA VACCINES - ARE THAT THEY DO STOP YOU FROM GETTING - COVID-19! . . . . .
. . mRNA VACCINES ONLY STOP - YOU - FROM GETTING - THE SYMPTOMS! . . I STOPPED AND SAID . . “SAY WHAT?!” . . I PLAYED THE PIECE BACK AGAIN!
. . RFK, JR DID SAY - YOU STILL GET - COVID-19! . . “YOU” . . DON’T GET THE SYMPTOMS!
. . I IMMEDIATELY RESPONDED - OH F***! . . THE VACCINATED WILL BECOME . . . .
. . “ASYMPTOMATIC SUPER SPREADERS OF COVID-19!” . . . .
. . TO THOSE WHO . . DON’T HAVE . . THE VACCINE!
. . WHAT THE POWERS HAVE ALSO NOT TOLD YOU . . . “ANNUAL VACCINES AT MINIMUM!”
. . ANTIBODIES ONLY LAST 3 WEEKS TO 3-4 MONTHS! . . . .
. . EVERYONE WILL NEED TO GET THE mRNA VACCINES - ANNUALLY AT LEAST!
. . THIS MEANS THAT NO HERD IMMUNITY UNTIL 80% OF 7.8 BILLION IS ACHIEVED!
. . 15 BILLION PLUS VACCINES ANNUALLY! . . GOOD LUCK ON THAT!
. . EMERGING MARKET AND ANIMAL MUTATIONS WILL DRIVE . . . .
. . MORE CONTAGIOUS AND DEADLY STRAINS! ALONG WITH LIMITED . . .
. . VACCINATIONS IN EMERGING MARKETS AND POOR TO MIDDLE CLASS COMMUNITIES.
. . AS I HAVE SAID FOR YEARS . . I GET THE FLU VACCINE ANNUALLY! . . MOST YEARS . .
. . I GET . . THE FLU! . . BUT . . “DR DEATH’S KILLER COVID-19!” . . IS THE VIRUS . . .
. . “THAT KEEPS ON KILLING MORE AND MORE!” . . DUE TO . . “LONG-HAULERS” . . . .
. . WHO HAVE . . “SEVERE SYMPTOMS” . . MANY THAT LAST THEIR LIFETIMES! . . . .
. . “TWO TO THREE WAVES OF . . DR DEATH’S KILLER COVID-19 . . ANNUALLY!” . .
. . CREATES . . “MORE AND MORE COMPROMISED PEOPLE ANNUALLY!” . . . .
. . WHO ARE LIKELY NOT IMMUNE TO NEW STRAINS OF . . “DR DEATH’S KILLER COVID!”
. . TRANSMITTED EASILY BETWEEN MINX & HUMANS & LIKELY FERRETS TOO!. . . .
. . THOSE THAT . . WILL NOT VACCINATE . . AND . . THE BILLIONS OF POOR GLOBALLY . .
. . THAT WILL NEVER GET A VACCINE! . . ARE SITTING DUCKS FOR FOR THE VIRUS BY . .
. . “THE mRNA VACCINATED ASYMPTOMATIC SUPER SPREADERS!”
. . PEOPLE VACCINATED WILL NOT LIKELY USE MASKS AND DISTANCING! . .
. . INCREASING THE NUMBERS OF . . “ASYMPTOMATIC SUPER SPREADERS!”
. . BY 10 FOLD PLUS! . . “ASYMPTOMATIC SUPER SPREADERS EVERYWHERE!”
. . “HERD GENOCIDE!” . . NOT . . “HERD IMMUNITY!” . . THIS IS . . . .
. . “THE GLOBAL DEPOPULATION AND GLOBAL POLICE STATE AGENDA!” . . OF . .
. . “SATAN’S MAFIA!” . . THE RUTHLESS EVIL SUPER RICH AND THEIR OPERATORS!
PLEASE READ MY PRIOR IV POSTS ON - “HERD GENOCIDE” . . NOT . . “HERD IMMUNITY!”
“HERD GENOCIDE IV!” VACCINE ANIMAL AND EMERGING MARKET MUTATION ISSUES! “SIBERIAN METHANE” IS EXPLODING! HOW CATASTROPHIC ONLY QUESTION! “ICE FREE ARCTIC” “LATENT HEAT EFFECT” EXPLODES METHANE RELEASE? 2-3C=60’ SEA LEVEL RISE! THE END!
NOTICE NOW! . . HOW THE NEWS MEDIA DOES STATE . . YOU STILL MUST WEAR YOUR MASKS AND SOCIAL DISTANCE . . UNTIL EVERYONE IS VACCINATED! . . .
. . BUT THEY DON’T TELL YOU . . WHY!. . . . IT IS BECAUSE . . “VACCINATED PERSONS” . .
. . STILL GET . . “COVID-19” . . BUT THEY . . “DO NOT” . . GET . . “THE SYMPTOMS!”
. . SO VACCINATED PEOPLE . . ARE VERY LIKELY TO BECOME . . . .
. . “ASYMPTOMATIC SUPER SPREADERS!” . . TO THOSE WHO DON’T HAVE THE VACCINE!
. . IF 50% OF THE COUNTRY WOULDN’T USE MASKS AND SOCIAL DISTANCE! . .
. . WHEN THEY DID NOT HAVE ANY VACCINE! . . I AM WILLING TO PLACE THE ODDS AT . . .
. . THE PE0PLE GETTING THE VACCINE . . BEING UNWILLING TO WEAR MASKS . . .
. . OR SOCIAL DISTANCING! . . HENCE, THEY ARE LIKELY TO BECOME . . . .
. . “THE ASYMPTOMATIC SUPER SPREADERS” . . THIS IS PARTICULARLY LIKELY GLOBALLY!
. . WHERE GETTING THE MAJORITY VACCINATED MAY NEVER HAPPEN! . . MAKING . . .
. . THE EMERGING MARKETS . . LIKELY SUPER SPREADER HOT SPOTS!
Here’s Why Vaccinated People Still Need to Wear a Mask
The new vaccines will probably prevent you from getting sick with Covid. No one knows yet whether they will keep you from spreading the virus to others — but that information is coming.
THE NEW YORK TIMES; By Apoorva Mandavilli
Published Dec. 8, 2020Updated Dec. 9, 2020
The new Covid-19 vaccines from Pfizer and Moderna seem to be remarkably good at preventing serious illness. But it’s unclear how well they will curb the spread of the coronavirus.
That’s because the Pfizer and Moderna trials tracked only how many vaccinated people became sick with Covid-19. That leaves open the possibility that some vaccinated people get infected without developing symptoms, and could then silently transmit the virus — especially if they come in close contact with others or stop wearing masks.
If vaccinated people are silent spreaders of the virus, they may keep it circulating in their communities, putting unvaccinated people at risk.
“A lot of people are thinking that once they get vaccinated, they’re not going to have to wear masks anymore,” said Michal Tal, an immunologist at Stanford University. “It’s really going to be critical for them to know if they have to keep wearing masks, because they could still be contagious.”
In most respiratory infections, including the new coronavirus, the nose is the main port of entry. The virus rapidly multiplies there, jolting the immune system to produce a type of antibodies that are specific to mucosa, the moist tissue lining the nose, mouth, lungs and stomach. If the same person is exposed to the virus a second time, those antibodies, as well as immune cells that remember the virus, rapidly shut down the virus in the nose before it gets a chance to take hold elsewhere in the body.
The coronavirus vaccines, in contrast, are injected deep into the muscles and stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies. This appears to be enough protection to keep the vaccinated person from getting ill.
Some of those antibodies will circulate in the blood to the nasal mucosa and stand guard there, but it’s not clear how much of the antibody pool can be mobilized, or how quickly. If the answer is not much, then viruses could bloom in the nose — and be sneezed or breathed out to infect others.
“It’s a race: It depends whether the virus can replicate faster, or the immune system can control it faster,” said Marion Pepper, an immunologist at the University of Washington in Seattle. “It’s a really important question.”
This is why mucosal vaccines, like the nasal spray FluMist or the oral polio vaccine, are better than intramuscular injections at fending off respiratory viruses, experts said.
The next generation of coronavirus vaccines may elicit immunity in the nose and the rest of the respiratory tract, where it’s most needed. Or people could get an intramuscular injection followed by a mucosal boost that produces protective antibodies in the nose and throat.
The coronavirus vaccines have proved to be powerful shields against severe illness, but that is no guarantee of their efficacy in the nose. The lungs — the site of severe symptoms — are much more accessible to the circulating antibodies than the nose or throat, making them easier to safeguard.
“Preventing severe disease is easiest, preventing mild disease is harder, and preventing all infections is the hardest,” said Deepta Bhattacharya, an immunologist at the University of Arizona. “If it’s 95 percent effective at preventing symptomatic disease, it’s going to be something less than that in preventing all infections, for sure.”
Covid-19 Vaccines › Answers to Your Vaccine Questions
With distribution of a coronavirus vaccine beginning in the U.S., here are answers to some questions you may be wondering about:
Still, he and other experts said they were optimistic that the vaccines would suppress the virus enough even in the nose and throat to prevent immunized people from spreading it to others.
CORONAVIRUS BRIEFING: An informed guide to the global outbreak, with the latest developments and expert advice.
“My feeling is that once you develop some form of immunity with the vaccine, your ability to get infected will also go down,” said Akiko Iwasaki, an immunologist at Yale University. “Even if you’re infected, the level of virus that you replicate in your nose should be reduced.”
The vaccine trials have not produced data on how many vaccinated people were infected with the virus but did not have symptoms. Some hints are emerging, however.
AstraZeneca, which announced some of its trial results in November, said that volunteers had been testing themselves regularly for the virus, and that those results suggested that the vaccine might prevent some infections.
Pfizer will test a subset of its trial participants for antibodies against a viral protein called N. Because the vaccines have nothing to do with this protein, N antibodies would reveal whether the volunteers had become infected with the virus after immunization, said Jerica Pitts, a spokeswoman for the company.
Moderna also plans to analyze blood from all its participants and test for N antibodies. “It will take several weeks before we can expect to see those results,” said Colleen Hussey, a spokeswoman for Moderna.
The trials have so far analyzed only blood, but testing for antibodies in mucosa would confirm that the antibodies can travel to the nose and mouth. Dr. Tal’s team is planning to analyze matched blood and saliva samples from volunteers in the Johnson & Johnson trial to see how the two antibody levels compare.
In the meantime, Dr. Bhattacharya said, he was encouraged by recent work showing that people who received an intramuscular flu vaccine had abundant antibodies in the nose. And a study of Covid-19 patients found that antibody levels in saliva and blood were closely matched — suggesting that a strong immune response in the blood would also protect mucosal tissues.
Only people who have virus teeming in their nose and throat would be expected to transmit the virus, and the lack of symptoms in the immunized people who became infected suggests that the vaccine may have kept the virus levels in check.
But some studies have suggested that even people with no symptoms can have high amounts of coronavirus in their nose, noted Dr. Yvonne Maldonado, who represents the American Academy of Pediatrics at meetings of the federal Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. The first person confirmed to be reinfected with the coronavirus, a 33-year-old man in Hong Kong, also did not have symptoms, but harbored enough virus to infect others.
Vaccinated people who have a high viral load but don’t have symptoms “would actually be, in some ways, even worse spreaders because they may be under a false sense of security,” Dr. Maldonado said.
Dr. Tal said she was concerned by monkey studies showing that some vaccinated animals did not get ill, but still had virus in their nose.
But those monkeys were intentionally exposed to massive amounts of virus and still had less virus than unvaccinated animals, said John Moore, a virologist at Weill Cornell Medicine in New York.
“The more you reduce viral load, the less likely you are to be transmissible,” Dr. Moore said. But “all of these are things where data trumps theory, and we need the data.”
Does the AstraZeneca Vaccine Also Stop Covid Transmission?
WIRED; BY ADAM ROGERS, SCIENCE
11.25.2020 03:41 PM
Vaccines can prevent symptoms, but some can also keep people from spreading infection. That’s critical, and no one knows if the new vaccines do it.
THREE MONDAYS IN a row have now yielded three apparently effective and safe vaccines against the pandemic disease Covid-19. Amid an unprecedented peak in cases in the United States and Europe, with US deaths pushing 250,000 and the country showing uncontrolled spread of the virus, that ain’t bad news.
But slightly hidden in that non-bad news was news even less bad. This week’s entrant, a vaccine from the drug company AstraZeneca and researchers at Oxford University, came with tantalizing hints of a particular capability that would, if it bears out, make a huge difference in fighting the pandemic. The makers of the two other vaccines in play have reported only evidence that their drugs keep people from getting sick—which is to say, fewer vaccinated people have moderate to severe symptoms and test positive for infection. The vaccines do this very well. But researchers working on the AstraZeneca version said they also had signs of reduced transmission, of people spreading the disease from one person to another. The AstraZeneca results have some perplexing elements, for sure, but if the transmission thing holds up, it’s going to matter. A lot.
Here’s what’s known (or at least announced) so far: The first two vaccines to complete their large-scale trials, one from the drug companies Pfizer and BioNTech and the other from Moderna, are a new kind of medicine. They use bits of genetic material called messenger RNA, in this case a sequence that codes for a part of the virus called a spike protein. That protein helps the SARS-CoV-2 virus attack people’s cells; the mRNA, enfolded in proprietary bubbles of fat, teaches the human immune system to fight the virus instead. Pfizer’s version has an efficacy of above 90 percent, says a company press release; a Moderna press release says its efficacy is 94.5 percent. If those results hold when more data becomes public, these vaccines would be extraordinary.
The one from AstraZeneca is a little more traditional, putting the gene for that spike protein into a sort of stealth carrier called a vector—in this case, an adenovirus that usually infects chimpanzees, modified so that it can’t replicate anymore. The company’s results—again, maddeningly, delivered via press release rather than peer-reviewed science—are a little more confusing. AstraZeneca is running different studies around the world, each with slightly different methodologies, which makes them hard to compare. But if you dump them all into the same pool, as AstraZeneca seems to have done, its two-dose regimen seems to have an efficacy of around 60 percent. That seems not great, though it’s higher than the 50 percent, plus or minus, that the US Food and Drug Administration was looking for. And in a group accidentally given a half-dose for the first shot and a full dose for the second, efficacy went up to 90 percent. Nobody knows why, and it is not good statistics to just average together a study done right with a study done wrong, re-analyzed after the fact.
But for the moment let’s not look this gift adenovirus in the mouth. The press release on the AstraZeneca vaccine from the Oxford side included this bulleted finding: “Early indication that vaccine could reduce virus transmission from an observed reduction in asymptomatic infections.” An Oxford immunologist told the news section of the journal Nature that some of the people in the UK part of the trial actually were testing themselves regularly for infection with the virus, and that different infection rates in the placebo and vaccine groups suggested that the drug was also blocking transmission of the disease. Researchers at Oxford also told reporters Monday that testing showed the vaccinated group in the UK had fewer asymptomatic infections, which means they'd be less likely to unwittingly spread the disease themselves.
Again: unpublished data, no details, no peer review, science-by-press-release. That ain’t good. But big, as political writers sometimes say, if true. People infected with the virus but without symptoms—asymptomatic spreaders—seem to be a reason the disease is pandemic-y. Nobody’s sure how big a reason, though.
Lots of other respiratory viruses overlap symptoms and transmission—sometimes the symptoms themselves, like coughing, are the way the virus gets from an infected person to others. The time between infection and symptoms, called the incubation period, doesn’t last long. “We know with flu, the incubation period is relatively short, and people may shed virus for a day or so,” says Arnold Monto, an epidemiologist at the University of Michigan who chairs the FDA’s Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee, which helps make decisions on approving new vaccines. “We can infect a ferret with flu and they get sick, but if they’re not coughing or doing whatever ferrets do when they’re symptomatic, they don’t transmit as well.”
The assumption that this was also true for Covid-19 provided the stitching for a lot of pandemic protection cosplay—like temperature checks and symptom surveys. “A lot of the things we did early were based on the fact that with traditional SARS, there was not a whole lot of transmission from asymptomatic individuals,” Monto says. “Symptomatic people tend to transmit more than asymptomatic people for respiratory infections. We think that’s probably true with Covid, but it is becoming more clear that asymptomatic people are also involved in transmission.”
The problem is, a Covid-19 vaccine that only prevents illness—which is to say, symptoms—might not prevent infection with the virus or transmission of it to other people. Worst case, a vaccinated person could still be an asymptomatic carrier. That could be bad. More younger people tend to get the virus, but more older people tend to die from it; socioeconomic status and ethnicity also have an impact on death rates. Some people have relatively light symptoms; other people have symptoms that hang on for months. And perhaps most importantly, a vaccine is the only way to reach herd immunity without a bloodbath. As politicized as the notion has become, herd immunity is essentially the sum of direct protection—what you might get if you’re vaccinated—and indirect protection, safety afforded by the fact that people around you aren’t transmitting the disease to you because they either already had the disease themselves or because they got vaccinated against it. If vaccinated people can still be asymptomatic spreaders, that means less indirect protection for the herd.
That really matters, because there isn’t enough vaccine to go around. Not yet, anyway. Some groups of people will go first. The characteristics of the available vaccines would, in a perfect world, determine who those people should be. One that only prevented illness might go first to the elderly, in whom severe illness is more likely to lead to death. One that prevented infection and transmission might go to essential workers and frontline caregivers. “Part of our worry is, we want to get it right in the early allocation phase, making sure we’re targeting the vaccine as best as you can,” says Grace Lee, a professor of pediatrics at Stanford School of Medicine and a member of the CDC’s Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. “If the only thing it did was protect against severe disease, you’d want to look at the population that has severe disease and only use it there, and nowhere else.”
That’s almost certainly not going to be the situation. The vaccines will probably all have some effect on transmission. But right now no one knows how much, or which one is better, or for whom—because so far only AstraZeneca has even a hint of data studying the problem.
How good is that data? Well, about that: Ann Falsey, a physician at the University of Rochester School of Medicine who’s leading the US portion of the AstraZeneca vaccine trial, told me via email that “the Oxford study press release hinted at some transmission data, but I am not privileged to that data so I really can’t offer much to say.” A few hours after this story first published, Falsey emailed to add that her study and the Oxford one "are funded and run separately.“ Spokespeople for AstraZeneca didn’t return my requests for more information. Neither did anyone at Moderna. Jerica Pitts, a spokesperson at Pfizer, did, but with nothing yet to report. “In the coming months we will test participants’ blood samples for antibodies that recognize a part of the virus that is not in the vaccine. If fewer participants in the vaccine group than in the placebo group develop such antibodies, we will have evidence that the vaccine can prevent infection as well as disease,” Pitts wrote me in an email. “We do not yet have those data.”
Different levels of protection against transmission could make a big difference in how well a vaccine will tamp down the pandemic. As part of the work of the vaccines committee that Lee is on, disease modelers spun out scenarios for the use of a vaccine that stopped 95 percent of transmission, versus one that stopped no transmission at all. (You can see some of the results starting on the 19th slide in this deck.) Given to high-risk adults and people older than 65 when incidence of the disease is rising, a vaccine that blocked infection (and therefore also transmission) could avert twice as many deaths as one that kept people from getting sick but allowed transmission.
That’s a model; in real life the differences won’t be so stark, because all the vaccines will almost certainly have some effect on transmission. The fact is, no one’s really sure how asymptomatic transmission works. It might be due to “expiratory particles” given off during talking and breathing, so maybe a vaccine that reduces symptoms would also reduce that. Or maybe just cutting down a person’s “viral load,” or the amount of virus they are carrying, also cuts the amount they can transmit. Maybe a vaccine that confers mucosal immunity, keeping the snot in someone’s nose and lungs free of virus, would lessen how much that person can send virus spreading into the universe. “Big-picture principle stuff would be: It’d be great if it eliminated transmission by eliminating asymptomatic carriers,” Lee says. “It would be great, if that weren’t true, for it to reduce your viral load, and that would in essence reduce your transmissibility.”
This wouldn’t be the first time that different vaccines had different effects. Some researchers have hypothesized that a recent resurgence of pertussis—whooping cough, a respiratory bacterial infection—might be due to a switch to a new vaccine that doesn’t address asymptomatic transmission. (That’s not the only hypothesis, but just stick with me for a second.) A model built by Sam Scarpino, director of the Emergent Epidemics Lab at Northeastern University, suggested that a switch back to the old formulation would lead to a significant drop in deaths and illnesses. Given the speed and severity of the Covid-19 pandemic, the importance of this effect could be even greater. “Especially in a country like the US with so much vaccine hesitancy, and coupled with how severe the disease can be especially in older adults, transmission block is a huge deal,” Scarpino says. “We don’t have any reason to think the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines won’t block transmission. It’s just not what has actually been measured, and something we aren’t likely to find out until we either start mass vaccination and/or they release more detailed information on the study locations—and epidemiologists start looking for effects of herd immunity.”
This absence of data on transmission was, to be clear, on purpose. The FDA laid out to vaccine makers what it was going to be looking for back in the summer, when the pandemic looked like it was peaking and hospitals were full of people on ventilators. The most important problems to focus on were severe illness and safety—because back then researchers were worried about the possibility of antibody-dependent enhancement, a rare side effect of viral illnesses in which vaccine-made tweaks to the immune system could actually cause worse problems later. And remember that Covid testing shortage? It applied to people in vaccine trials, too, which made it hard to do the kind of regular infection checks that the AstraZeneca UK wing was apparently able to do.
Which means nobody yet has transmission data beyond AstraZeneca’s vague hints. That’s suboptimal. The millions of people who may well start getting vaccinated as soon as December will also be a kind of Phase IV trial, an aftermarket test group in which scientists can observe what the vaccine does to transmission of the disease in the real world. “I do think we’re going to need that information over time,” Lee says. “But I feel like in this part of the pandemic, given the context we’re living in right now, it does feel like making vaccination a key component of protection of the population is going to be an important tool.”
It’d be better for planning to have that information in advance. But it’s not a deal breaker. “Could we refine that tool to optimize getting data? Yes, absolutely. Are we going to have that data? No. Are we going to stop and wait for that data? No,” Lee says. “Clearly, at this point the benefits of being able to protect part of the population are going to outweigh the downsides of not having perfect information.” Just because the news isn’t all good doesn’t mean it isn’t actionable.
COVID-19 vaccines poised for launch, but impact on pandemic unclear
25 NOVEMBER 2020, UPDATE 30 NOVEMBER 2020
The race to bring vaccines to market is nearing the finish line. Determining which product can best contain the pandemic, however, will take more time.
Just 200 days after beginning a clinical development program for their COVID-19 vaccine, Pfizer and BioNTech submitted a request to US drug regulators for an emergency approval.
The application to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) came on 20 November, soon after the companies found in a phase 3 study that their messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine was 95% effective — including in the elderly, a population particularly vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2. The companies wrapped up their study of >43,000 people when the number of confirmed COVID-19 cases reached 170, with 162 of those occurring among people given placebo shots. If granted an Emergency Use Authorization, Pfizer and BioNTech say they will begin offering the BNT162b2 vaccine to healthcare workers and high-risk populations in the United States as soon as mid-December.
Moderna, the other leading developer of an mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccine, might not be far behind. On 30 November, the company filed its own application to FDA authorities on the basis of phase 3 trial data from 196 cases, 185 of which arose in the placebo group, yielding a point estimate of vaccine efficacy of 94%. The FDA's Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee is expected to review the data packages for BNT162b2 and Moderna's mRNA-1273 on meetings scheduled one week apart in mid-December. No mRNA vaccines have ever reached this late stage of clinical development.
“All of these data show the promise and potential of messenger RNA vaccines as a new modality in the vaccine field,” says Mariola Fotin-Mleczek, chief technology officer of CureVac, another mRNA-focused company. CureVac is on track to initiate phase 3 testing of its COVID-19 vaccine by the end of the year.
Still, much about the vaccines’ efficacy and safety — biological details that could shape the course of the vaccines’ impact on containing the pandemic — remain unknown. “Personally, I’m waiting for further data concerning T-cell responses and duration of the antibodies,” says Stanley Plotkin, a pioneering vaccinologist and former pharmaceutical executive who now consults for vaccine manufacturers. And while acknowledging that the data reported to date are “very encouraging,” Plotkin is reserving judgment on the mRNA vaccines until more results become available from late-stage trials of the many other experimental vaccines now moving their way through clinical development.
Of the other vaccine types, two adenoviral vector–based candidates — AZD1222 from AstraZeneca and the University of Oxford, UK, and Sputnik V from the Gamaleya National Center of Epidemiology and Microbiology in Moscow and the Russian Direct Investment Fund — have already reported preliminary phase 3 data. More results are expected soon for vaccines built around recombinant proteins, inactivated versions of SARS-CoV-2 and other technologies as well. “By the end of next year,” Plotkin says, “we’re going to have really concrete comparative data.”
The two mRNA front-runners share many commonalities. Both take advantage of modified RNA chemistry to encode the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein with stabilizing mutations added to lock the shape-shifting surface protein into a form easily recognizable to the immune system. Both also use lipid nanoparticle (LNP) delivery systems. Efficacy results reported for each vaccine were based on similar analyses — the number of participants who developed symptoms of COVID-19 and then had laboratory confirmations of infection, either one week after receiving the second of two vaccine doses spaced three weeks apart, in the case of the Pfizer/BioNTech trial, or two weeks after a two-shot, 28-day regimen with the Moderna vaccine.
Despite the many molecular and clinical parallels, however, the two products have shown key distinguishing features as well.
On the safety side, while both BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 were generally well tolerated by participants of phase 3 trials, with most side effects short-lived, the Moderna vaccine was linked to a greater incidence of severe adverse events such as a fatigue and muscle pain after the second shot. Experts speculate that the different dosages (30 micrograms for BNT162b2 versus 100 micrograms for mRNA-1273) could account for the different tolerability profiles.
The Pfizer/BioNtech vaccine might also have a slight edge when it comes to the immune response. In phase 1 trials, with both vaccines, humoral immunity was strong, with virus-neutralizing antibody titers generally surpassing those found in individuals who had recovered from natural infection. As for cellular immunity, both also induced CD4+ T-cell responses skewed toward T-helper type 1 cells. Yet, as reported, only the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine seemed to bring about any sort of cytotoxic CD8+ T cell response. Direct comparisons are difficult, however, as the two vaccine developers used different assays for profiling immune cells.
Where Moderna could have the upper hand is in distribution and storage infrastructure. The company claims that its vaccine remains stable in a standard –20 °C freezer for up to six months, under refrigeration (2–8 °C) for up to 30 days and at room temperature for up to 12 hours. By comparison, Pfizer and BioNTech plan to keep their vaccines at the arctic temperature of –70 °C. To maintain that ultracold temperature in transit, they have created specially designed shipping containers that, if replenished with dry ice, can be used for up to 15 days; otherwise, specialized freezers costing upwards of $10,000 are needed. Once thawed, the companies say, the vaccines can last for up to five days in the fridge.
While it’s possible that differences in LNP formulations or mRNA secondary structures could account for the thermostability differences, many experts suspect both vaccine products will ultimately prove to have similar storage requirements and shelf lives under various temperature conditions. “I don’t think there’s any reason to assume that any of them will be different in terms of their stability,” says Tom Madden, president and CEO of Acuitas Therapeutics in Vancouver, British Columbia, the company behind the LNPs used in the COVID-19 vaccines from Pfizer/BioNTech and CureVac. Describing the –70 °C cold chain as “most conservative approach,” Madden notes that more long-term data, presented in full rather than in a press release, are needed to resolve the issue.
“Different companies have taken different approaches to how they’re going to roll out the vaccines, and we’re seeing that in the press releases,” Madden says. But, “as I like to say, you can’t run a two-year stability study in six months — and that’s the reality of the situation.”
Still, the initial cold-chain requirements for BNT162b2 could hamper the vaccine’s distribution or lead to spoilage, especially in parts of the world without reliable electricity infrastructure. According to Philip Dormitzer, head of viral vaccines research at Pfizer, the company has ongoing thermostability studies and is working on a lyophilized formulation as well. While research into that process continues, however, “we are focused very much on distributing with what we know we can do,” Dormitzer says. “That’s the lowest risk approach.”
Both leading mRNA vaccines could also face supply chain challenges. In addition to securing the requisite number of glass vials, syringes and other consumables involved in the fill–finish part of the vaccine manufacturing process — plus the dry ice and cold packs needed for distribution — the products will demand unprecedented quantities of more exotic ingredients, such as the capping enzyme needed to stabilize the mRNA after transcription from its DNA template. Jake Becraft also worries about having sufficient raw materials for the multicomponent LNP systems. “There’s not going to be enough cholesterol for the lipid nanoparticles,” says Becraft, cofounder and CEO of Strand Therapeutics, a synthetic biology company developing mRNA-based medicines, including a COVID-19 vaccine candidate being tested in Asia.
Several biological uncertainties linger as well (Nat. Biotechnol. 38, 1132–1145; 2020). Both BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 seem to prevent disease within a week of two of immunization.
“The question is: What’s the durability going to be like?” says Philip Santangelo, a bioengineer who studies mRNA delivery at the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta. In phase 1 studies of Moderna’s other mRNA vaccine products, researchers observed signs of lasting antibody persistence against some pathogens, such as cytomegalovirus, but waning immunity against others, including influenza (A CORONAVIRUS - SO THE DURABILITY OR LONGEVITY OF THE COVID-19 VACCINE - IS LIKELY - TO BE SHORT - MAKING VACCINATION MORE THAN ANNUALLY - MOST LIKELY). But, as Santangelo points out, immune persistence tends to be “very antigen specific, unfortunately” — which makes extrapolating to COVID-19 vaccines difficult. “It’s not predictable,” he says.
Dormitzer, for his part, takes comfort in the finding that the second dose of the prime–boost approach seems to trigger massive upticks in antibody levels, a sign that some type of immune memory has formed. So, he says, “at least we’ve got boostability if the durability isn’t as good as we hoped for.”
In principle, AstraZeneca’s adenovirus-based vaccine could have an advantage over mRNA-based products as it has good tolerability and could offer longer-lasting protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection. The company’s AZD1222 uses a non-replicating chimpanzee adenovirus to express the wild-type version of the spike protein, and other vaccine candidates built around the same vector platform and prime–boost strategy have led to immune responses persisting for a year or longer.
On 23 November, AstraZeneca and its partners reported interim data showing that their vaccine candidate was 70% effective overall, with that number rising to 90% among study participants given one particular dosing regimen. In their phase 3 trial, conducted in the United Kingdom and Brazil, 131 COVID-19 cases were recorded a fortnight or more after trial participants received the immunization and booster.
Earlier in the month, the team behind Sputnik V similarly announced, on the basis of 39 COVID-19 cases identified in an ongoing phase 3 trial, that its product looked to be 91% effective. That vaccine — which already received emergency approval from Russia’s Health Ministry — involves a prime–boost regimen of two recombinant adenovirus vectors, a type 26 followed by a type 5 three weeks later, each encoding the wild-type spike protein. According to a Russian Direct Investment Fund spokesperson, trial results will be submitted for publication in a peer-reviewed journal in the coming weeks.
Whichever vaccine platform’s immunity proves more durable could ultimately have an outsized impact on the future trajectory of the coronavirus pandemic, says Caroline Wagner, a computational biologist at McGill University in Montreal, Quebec, who has modeled disease dynamics under various immunological scenarios. Whether the vaccines curb virus spread or simply keep people from becoming as sick upon infection will also be important, she notes — yet the effects on transmission remain unknown since the phase 3 trials were designed primarily to consider symptomatic disease.
If the vaccines don’t elicit transmission-blocking immunity, then initial public health campaigns focused on inoculating high-risk populations and the elderly — although they should help save lives — may not do much to bring the pandemic under control, according to vaccine allocation models developed by mathematical biologists Daniel Larremore and Kate Bubar at the University of Colorado Boulder. And even once the general population starts getting the vaccines, it may not fully obviate the need for social distancing and other mitigation strategies any time soon, especially if many people opt not to roll up their sleeves for the shots.
As Bruce Y. Lee, a health systems modeler at the City University of New York School of Public Health, points out: “You still have to get a high enough vaccination coverage for that to actually be able to halt the spread of the COVID-19 coronavirus.” According to Lee’s models, at least 70% of the population will need to be vaccinated or have been infected with SARS-CoV-2 to fully extinguish the pandemic. “That’s not an insignificant bar to try to reach,” Lee says.
Add in all the supply chain issues, vaccine skepticism and logistics of a two-dose regimen and it’s anybody’s guess which COVID-19 vaccine will ultimately deliver the biggest public health benefit. “The things that really start distinguish one thing from another are not the early promise — it’s how they do over the long run,” says Naor Bar-Zeev, a vaccine epidemiologist at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.
The contest to bring a COVID-19 vaccine to market often gets framed as a race, but “it’s not a sprint,” Bar-Zeev says. “It’s a long haul.”
doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/d41587-020-00022-yUPDATES & CORRECTIONS
COVID-19 in Animals Review Part 4: Mustelids (Mink and Ferrets)
By Scott Weese on October 29, 2020
I’ve spent a lot more talking about mink in the past few months than I ever thought I would. In regard to SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19 in people), mink and ferrets (their close relatives) are a fascinating story, but I’ll try to be brief about it. Mink have become important because of the widespread outbreaks of SARS-CoV-2 on mink farms in some countries, and ferrets are important because they’re household pets and appear to be equally susceptible to the virus. What we know about these two species within the mustelid family is quite different. We have good experimental data for ferrets and very little field data. For mink, it’s the opposite.
What’s the story with mink and SARS-CoV-2?
I think it’s fair to say this caught us off guard. At the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, no one was talking about risks to/from mink farms. Yet, mink are highly susceptible to the SARS-CoV-2 virus. There have been widespread outbreaks on mink farms in some countries, first in the Netherlands but now in several countries in Europe, as well as in the US. In the vast majority of cases, it is suspected that the mink were initially infected by a person, and then the virus spread further from animal-to-animal. Some affected farms have had few health issues while others have reported considerable illness and increased mortality in their animals, which has led to widespread culling of mink in some countries to try to contain the spread of the virus.
There are a few additional concerns with these outbreaks beyond the health of the animals themselves. One is zoonotic transmission back to people, as apparent mink-to-human transmission has been reported in one Dutch study. Infection of feral cats on mink farms has also been identified, which raises concern about the cats (or escaped mink) potentially infecting wildlife in the surrounding area. Work on this issue is ongoing.
So, mink can be infected, the virus is effectively spread between mink, mink can potentially infect people in contact them, and mink may be a source of exposure for other animals. All of those are concerning.
How about ferrets and SARS-CoV-2? Are they as susceptible as mink?
Whether ferrets are “as susceptible” as mink is hard to say; however, they are clearly susceptible to infection, can get sick, and can shed enough virus to infect other ferrets, as has been demonstrated in multiple experimental studies. Notably, ferrets can be infected with fairly low doses of SARS-CoV-2.
One thing that raised some concern and confusion was a report that ferrets could spread the virus “via the air.” While the study showed that ferrets were able to transmit the virus to other ferrets in cages 10 cm away, the results weren’r actually indicative of true airborne spread (a bit of a loaded term). Rather, it was likely droplet spread over a short distance.
A more recent study raised a bit more concern, as it reported transmission of the virus between ferrets over more than 1 metre. In this study, airflow was high and was directed from the infected to uninfected ferrets, so while the virus traveled at least 1 metre under those conditions, we have to be careful when assessing what that means. I think it supports the fact that this virus can move in the air for short distances, but a lot of factors influence how far it goes and the risks associated with aerosol transmission. We’re learning more and more than ventilation and environmental conditions are important for human-to-human transmission as well.
How sick can ferrets get from SARS-CoV-2?
At the start, I was expecting ferrets to be susceptible to severe disease because ferrets can also get quite sick, and sometimes die, after infection with the original SARS virus. The SARS-CoV-2 doesn’t seem quite as hard on them, but experimental data are variable. Some studies have reported infections with limited or no obvious signs of disease (Shi et al., Schlottau et al., Kim et al.) However, at least one study reported more serious disease from SARS-CoV-2 in ferrets, sometimes requiring euthanasia. The difference in results might be related to the dose of virus, with higher doses used in the experimental study where more serious disease was observed.
If ferrets are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2, why aren’t there reports of infected pet ferrets?
Good question. That probably relates to limited testing. In our Canadian SARS-CoV-2 surveillance study, we’ve only been able to test one ferret. I haven’t seen much other surveillance data in this species. There’s one pre-print study looking at human-to-ferret transmission in a household where there were two infected people and 29 ferrets, but they didn’t find any evidence of transmission to ferrets. However, it’s hard to conclude much from a study of one household. Testing of the ferrets started 16 days after the onset of the first person’s illness and 13 days after the onset of the second person’s illness. It’s a challenge getting samples from the animals early in the disease of the people, so we probably under-estimate transmission with studies like this (ours included). The same study looked for antibodies in the ferrets too, but it was antibodies from oral swabs that were submitted for virus testing, and I’m not sure anyone knows how sensitive that technique is. So, there was no evidence of human-to-ferret transmission, but it was only one household and the testing had some significant limitations. Study of more ferrets in more households is needed. The lack of reports of infected ferrets may also be a function of there being fewer pet ferrets compared to dogs/cats, and correspondingly less testing for that reason as well. Ferrets seem to be more susceptible than dogs and cats in experimental studies.
Can ferrets infect people with SARS-CoV-2?
We don’t know. Given their susceptibility to the virus, the experimental study data and evidence of potential transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from mink to people, I think we have to assume that an infected ferret might pose some degree of risk to people as well. However, if a ferret is infected, it almost certainly got it from a human household contact, and that person poses much more risk to others in the household than the ferret does. The main risk is if the ferret leaves the household (e.g. to see a veterinarian) during the period when people in the household are infected, as it may take the virus along for the ride and could then potentially spread it to others.
What should be done with mink and ferrets?
Image source: https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/newfoundland-labrador/covid-outbreaks-mink-farms-canadian-breeders-prepare-1.5769815
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“The last time the Earth experienced a comparable concentration of CO₂ was 3-5 million years ago, when the temperature was 2-3°C warmer and sea level was 10-20 meters (30’ TO 60’) higher than now. But there weren’t 7.7 billion inhabitants,” said WMO Secretary-General Professor Petteri Taalas.
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“HERD GENOCIDE III” COVID LONG-HAULERS! ACCELERATES “GLOBAL DIMMING!” CAUSING “ICE FREE ARCTIC!” 9/2022 UNLEASHING “HOT STUFF!” MELTING ANTARCTICA! GMAT 2-3C RISE = 60’ SEA LEVEL RISE 2025-30! BLOWING UP 440 NUCLEAR REACTORS! “THE END!”
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Viking Economics: How the Scandinavians Got It Right - And How We Can, Too; The Secrets of The Nordic Model, by the same author, and The Nordic Perspective!
US CORPORATE STATE SOCIALISM, Fascist Monopolistic, Homo and Transphobe, Racist, Kleptocratic / Thieves, Oil War Imperialist Focused, "ALL for THE RICH" - - "RAPE THE REST!" Especially Destroy the Lives of the Truly Good People Who Stand against THE EVIL GREED of THE FEW, The Sunshine Band. UNTIL The Horrific Demise of ALL God's Children, God's Species and Wonder Filled World for THE EVIL GREED OF THE FEW . . . .
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"THE SIBERIAN METHANE MONSTER!"
"House of Trump, House of Putin: The Untold Story of Donald Trump and the Russian Mafia"
“Damning in its accumulation of detail, terrifying in its depiction of the pure evil of those Trump chose to do business with.”--The Spectator (UK)
Watch "THE SIBERIAN METHANE MONSTER" - ABOVE - BURN UP and SUPER STORMS DESTROY Planet EVIL GREED! DAILY! OH BOY, WHAT COULD BE MORE EXCITING THAN THAT!? OK, Her Name is . . . . . . . "HOT STUFF!"
"The Limits to Growth: A Final Warning" tells you about the authors work since the early seventies, my work since 1980, and the stage of the "science of overpopulation analysis." Dr. Jorgen Randers, "2052: A Global Forecast for the Next Forty Years," and Lester Brown, "World on The Edge," have portended the fate of the world, due to overpopulation since the seventies! However limited I see their understanding of "abrupt climate change."